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 Answers to List of Questions Given on 9/14/2010

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PostSubject: Answers to List of Questions Given on 9/14/2010   Wed Sep 15, 2010 9:47 am

Post your answers assigned to you by Mrs. Percell here.
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PostSubject: Re: Answers to List of Questions Given on 9/14/2010   Wed Sep 15, 2010 9:49 am

Nancy Tran
Chapter 6 (questions 5-10)

5. What developmental disturbances can occur during the initiation stage?
During the intiation stage, adontia (partial or complete absence of teeth)and development of supernumery (excess) teeth can occur. Adontia is due to lack of initiation and can be related to ectodermal dysplasia. Development of supernumery teeth is due to abnormal initiation.

6. What occurs during the bud stage, and what tissues are involved?
The bud stage is the 2nd stage of odontogenesis during the 8th week of prenatal development. During this process, the growth of the dental lamina and tooth buds penetrating into the ectomesenchyme occurs. Tissues involved are the ectoderm and the mesenchyme neural crest cells.

7. What developmental disturbances can occur during the bud stage?
Abnormal proliferation can result in single or complete tooth dentition to become larger or smaller than normal. (macrodontia/microdontia)

8. What occurs during the cap stage, and what tissues are involved?
3rd stage of odontogenesis during the 9th-10th week of prenatal development. During this stage, proliferation, differentiation, and morphogenesis occurs. The enamel organ forms into a cap with a surrounding mass of dental papilla and dental sac which then forms the tooth germ. Tissues involves are the ectoderm and mesenchyme. (ectomesenchyme)

9. What does the tooth germ consist of?
Enamel organ, dental papilla, and dental sac

10. What is the successional dental lamina, and what does it provide?
Site of origin where the permanent dentition will eventually take shape of the primary dentition. Generally a lnigual extension of the primary tooth germ.
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PostSubject: From SAM   Wed Sep 15, 2010 9:51 am

Chapter four pg46-49

17.) How does the primitive pharynx develop?
a. The beginnings of the embryo’s hollow tube are derived from the anterior portion of the foregut and will form the primitive pharynx future oral portion of the throat, or oropharynx. The primitive pharynx widens cranially where it joins the primitive mouth of the stomedum and narrows caudally as it joins the esophagus. The caudal part of the primitive pharynx forms the esophagus, which leads to the stomach.

18.) What is the branchial apparatus:
a. The branchial apparatus consists of the branchial arches, branchial grooves and membrane, and pharyngeal pouches. The name branchial is used because it refers to gill formation in the neck area for respiratory function in lower life forms.

19.) To which tissue does each branchial arch give rise?
a. It is important to note that the fifth branchial arches are so rudimentary that they are absent in humans or are included with the fourth branchial arches. The first pair of arches forms the middle and lower face. The mandibular arch is the first branchial arch.
b. The second branchial arch, or hyoid arch is cartilage similar to the cartilage in the mandibular arch. This cartilage is also called Reichert’s cartilage, and the most of it disappears; however, parts of it are responsible for a middle ear bone, a process of the temporal bone, and portions of the hyoid bone. Additionally the perichondrium surrounding the Reichert’s cartilage gives rise to the ligament of the hyoid bone. The mesoderm of the hyoid arches helps form the muscles of facial expression, the middle ear muscles, and a suprahyoid muscle.
c. The third branchial arch has an unnamed cartilage associated with it. This cartilage will be responsible for the formation of portions of the hyoid bone the only muscle to be derived from the mesoderm of each third arch is a pharyngeal muscle. Each pair of the arches is innervated by the ninth cranial nerve, the glossopharyngeal nerve.
d. Both the forth branchial arch and the sixth branchial arch also unnamed cartilage associated with them. These arches fuse and participate in the formation of most of the laryngeal cartilages. The mesoderm of the arches is associated with the muscles of larynx, and pharynx.

20.) What are the branchial grooves?
a. Between the neighboring branchial arches, external grooves are noted on each side of the embryo. These are the branchial grooves, or pharyngeal grooves. The first branchial groove, which is located between the first and second branchial arches give rise to a definitive mature structure of the head and neck. The first groove forms the external auditory meatus. By the end of the seventh week, the last four branchial grooves are obliterated as a result of a sudden spurt of growth experienced by the pair of hyoid arches, which grow in an inferior direction and eventually form the neck. The obliteration of grooves gives the mature neck a smooth contour.

21.) Name the tissues associated with each pharyngeal pouch.
a. Four well defined pairs of pharyngeal pouches develop as endodermal evaginations from the lateral walls lining the pharynx. The pouches develop as balloon like structures in a craniocaudal sequence between the branchail arch. The fifth pharyngeal pouches are absent or rudimentary. Many tissues of the face and neck are developed from the pharyngeal pouches.
b. The first pharyngeal pouches form between the first and second branchial arches and become the auditory tubes. Palatine tonsillar tissue is derived from the lining of the second pharyngeal pouches and also from the pharyngeal walls. The thymus glad and parathyroid glands appear to be derived from the lining of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches.

22.) What are cervical cysts, and how can they present?
a. The branchial grooves occasionally do not become obliterated, and thus portions remain as cervical sinuses or cervical cysts. These cysts may drain through sinuses along the neck but may also remain free in the neck tissue just inferior to the angle of the mandible and anywhere along the anterior border of the sternocleidomastiod muscle. These cysts do not become apparent until they produce a slowly enlarging, painless swelling.
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PostSubject: Ch. 4. qustions 1-5   Wed Sep 15, 2010 10:06 am

1. When does the face begin to form, and when is it completed?
The face begins to form during the 4th week of prenatal development, within the embryonic period. This process is later completed in the twelfth week, within the fetal period.
2. What layers of the embryo are involved in facial development?
All three embryonic layers are involved in facial development. This includes the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm.
3. Describe facial fusion.
Facial fusion is mainly the elimination of a groove between two adjacent swellings of tissues or processes on the SAME surface of the embryo caused by merging of underlying mesenchymal tissues and migration into the groove.
4. What is oral epithelium? To what does it give rise?
Oral epithelium is derived from ectoderm as a result of embryonic folding. The oral epithelium will line the oral cavity. The oral epithelium and underlying tissues will give rise to the teeth and associated tissues.
5. What is the term for the primitive mouth? What is its lining?
The term for primitive mouth is stomodeum. The stomodeum will give rise to the oral cavity, which will be lined by oral epithelium.
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